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Becoming an emergency medical technician (EMT) or paramedic typically takes one to three years, depending on your career goals and educational path. EMT training focuses on life support techniques for first-response situations, including CPR, tourniquet application, and wound treatment. Paramedics perform more advanced procedures than EMTs and therefore require more extensive education and training.
This guide reviews the basic responsibilities of EMTs and paramedics and highlights the educational steps needed to enter the field. The following sections also cover average earning potential and projected job growth for occupations in the field.
What Does a Paramedic/EMT Do?
Paramedics and EMTs work in a variety of capacities, including providing immediate medical treatment for sick and injured people in emergency situations and transporting patients to medical facilities.
Emergency medical technicians respond to 911 calls and medical emergencies. EMTs transport patients to hospitals, perform basic medical tasks, and act as first responders. As a medical professional, you must work well under pressure to make life-saving decisions in high-stress environments.
EMTs work closely with other medical professionals, including:
Your responsibilities as an EMT depend on your education and training. Some first responders only administer basic care, while EMTs with more training can perform more complex medical procedures in the field and on the way to the hospital.
What's the Difference Between an EMT and Paramedic?
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
- EMTs provide basic medical care to patients in the field, including stopping external bleeding, applying neck braces, and administering CPR.
- Many EMTs work for ambulance services, hospitals, and fire and police departments.
- EMTs must complete 120 to 150 hours of training to obtain certification.
- EMTs take the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) exam.
- Most EMT training programs do not award a degree.
- Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients in the field, including administering medication, inserting IVs, resuscitating patients, and providing breathing support using tubes and ventilation devices.
- In addition to working for employers that hire EMTs, paramedics can work in air ambulances and for other advanced emergency services.
- Paramedics must complete 1,200 to 1,800 hours of training to qualify for certification.
- Paramedics take the NREMT and the National Registry Paramedic cognitive exam.
- Some paramedic training programs offer a two-year degree.
Source: UCLA Center for Prehospital Care
Did You Know?
According to the 2018 Annual Report of the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, there are currently more than 400,000 nationally certified emergency medical services personnel in the United States.
Paramedic/EMT Salary and Job Growth Data
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), paramedics and EMTs earn a median salary of $36,650 per year. However, paramedics typically have a higher earning potential and more professional opportunities than EMTs. The highest-earning 10% of EMTs and paramedics make more than $62,150 per year.
The following table shows the highest-paying states and areas for paramedics, based on BLS data.
Average Annual Salary: $58,580
Average Annual Salary: $56,910
Average Annual Salary: $53,440
Average Annual Salary: $50,030
Average Annual Salary: $48,280
The map below shows details about earners in the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles for each state in 2018.
Paramedic/EMT Job Growth And Outlook
The BLS projects a 6% job growth for EMTs and paramedics from 2019 to 2029, faster than the national average for all occupations.
The BLS also projects an increase in aging populations that will drive up the demand for responders to age-related health emergencies. Medical services across the nation may require more EMTs and paramedics to respond to the rise in medical incidents.
The following states display the highest projected growth rates for paramedics and EMTs.
Growth Rate: 30.8%
Growth Rate: 22.3%
3. New York
Growth Rate: 20.1%
Growth Rate: 19.7%
Growth Rate: 14.8%
Growth Rate: 14.2%
Growth Rate: 13.4%
Growth Rate: 11.8%
Growth Rate: 11%
Growth Rate: 10.9%
The map below shows the growth rate, employment growth, and average annual openings for professionals in each state.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Projections Managing Partnership
How to Become a Paramedic/EMT
To become an EMT, you'll need a high school diploma or GED credential. EMTs must earn CPR certification before enrolling in a postsecondary emergency medical technology program. These programs last 1-2 years and do not confer degrees.
Paramedics must complete additional training, which may require an associate degree in emergency care training.
EMTs and paramedics must also complete a postsecondary emergency medical technology program through a community college, technical college, or university. These programs last 1-2 years and teach students how to assess, care for, and transport patients.
Aspiring paramedics then pursue a two-year associate degree in emergency medical services. These programs prepare learners to administer medications, insert IVs, and resuscitate patients.
The NREMT exam comprises a cognitive test and a psychomotor portion. You'll have six attempts to pass the cognitive exam and can reapply to take the cognitive exam 15 days after receiving your results. You'll take the psychomotor exam through a state emergency services office or approved training site.
Paramedics must also pass the National Registered Paramedics exam.
Advanced training courses require about 150 to 200 hours of fieldwork. Many courses require internship rotations in an emergency room and an emergency services agency.
Meet the experts: Pro-tips from real paramedics
We collected tips from the professional EMTs and paramedics at Cetronia Ambulance Corps, an emergency medical services non-profit in Eastern Pennsylvania. Here's what they had to say to aspiring paramedics:
3 years of paramedic experience
"Due to a national shortage of first responders in all capacities, many volunteer fire departments and EMS agencies have resources to assist you in obtaining training or arranging a ride-along. Do not hesitate due to lack of knowledge; the training will prepare you."
Ezekiel M. Waymer
4 years of EMS experience as an EMT and Volunteer Emergency Medical Responder
"You need to be able to keep your composure in bad situations. EMTs and paramedics go into some really bad life and death situations sometimes. If you have been in a really scary situation and weren't able to think straight or keep your composure, EMS is not for you. And that's ok, because EMS isn't for everyone."
6 years of EMS experience as a paramedic and EMT; aspiring emergency department physician with a bachelor's in emergency medicine
"Working as an EMT creates a strong foundation for patient care that can be built upon and works well as a precursor to a variety of different healthcare related careers. Some options include furthering your education in pre-hospital care and becoming a paramedic or pre-hospital RN or transitioning into a hospital as a nurse, PA [physician assistant], or physician."
What Paramedic/EMT Training Is Available?
An EMT diploma or certificate is the starting point of education for those who aspire to enter the field. If you wish to build your knowledge and skills further, you can earn an associate's or bachelor's degree.
Diploma or Certificate
The emergency medical technician certificate program will equip you with the foundational skills needed to provide emergency medical care to patients en route to a hospital.
You'll learn basic life support procedures to help patients in various emergency situations, including those who are suffering from an illness, have been the victim of violence, or have gotten into an accident. In order to deliver this critical care, students in paramedic schools are taught skills such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and how to open a patient's airway.
The EMT certificate program typically takes one to two years to complete, and prepares students to pass the licensing examination in their state. Examples of common courses and skills gained are given below.
Fundamentals of Emergency Medical Technology
Provides an overview of basic life support techniques in an emergency care setting.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Stabilizing patient after an emergency or illness
- Managing patient airways
- Bandaging patients
- Assessing what kind of care patients need
Introduction to the EMT Profession
Familiarizes students with how to work in the EMT care environment.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Documenting patient treatment
- Understanding medical terminology
- Communicating in a therapeutic environment
- Managing a medical incident
Teaches aspiring EMTs how to assess the condition of a patient and make treatment decisions.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Getting a patient's history
- Making primary and secondary patient assessments
Introduces students to the procedures for opening and managing a patient's airway.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Using devices related to airway management
- Monitoring medical equipment
- Understanding artificial ventilation devices
After earning an EMT certification, many students enroll in a paramedic associate degree program to advance their careers. Paramedics have more patient care responsibilities than EMTs, so the training received at this level is more comprehensive and advanced than a certificate.
Building on students' previous experience, this degree provides instruction on advanced emergency care techniques, including cardiac care, patient stabilization, and airway treatments. To help students deepen their understanding of emergency medical care, associate degree programs commonly offer the following courses:
Covers the steps involved with treating trauma patients.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Making patient assessments
- Understanding care for different kinds of trauma, such as spinal and soft-tissue trauma
- Caring for burns
- Implementing a treatment plan
Provides an understanding of how to treat patients requiring special or extra care.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Understanding pediatric emergencies
- Assessing the needs of patients with psychiatric emergencies
- Treating elderly patients
Explains the use of medications during emergency care.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Understanding pharmacological terminology
- Considering drug side effects when administering medications
- Administering drugs commonly used in emergency care
Describes the treatment of cardiac emergencies.
Skills and Knowledge Gained:
- Understanding cardiovascular emergencies
- Making an assessment of a cardiac patients
- Implementing a cardiac treatment plan
Paramedics who wish to advance their careers may elect to enroll in a four-year bachelor's degree program. Bachelor's degree graduates often procure jobs as healthcare administrators, paramedic training managers, or clinical supervisors. Some students use this degree as a springboard to go even further in their education, enrolling in physician assistant programs or medical school. Students can expect to gain a number of valuable skills throughout their degree, including:
Students who aspire to supervisory roles in an emergency care setting learn how to manage the work of paramedics as they navigate their way through chaotic situations.
Advanced clinical knowledge
Students build on existing knowledge of emergency care, gaining a deeper understanding of how to effectively work in an emergency environment through planning and executing patient care strategies.
Taking a managerial role in the field includes completing administrative tasks. Students learn various managerial functions, including budgeting, staffing, completing employee evaluations, and organizational planning.
Online Paramedic/EMT Training
Online paramedic schools are a convenient option for students who want to receive EMT training that can easily fit into their schedules. These programs allow students to combine online classes with in-person training, providing both theoretical and hands-on education. This is an attractive choice for many, but to get the most out of your education, you must find a school matched to your unique needs. Some characteristics to look for when choosing a school include:
Paramedic/EMT Jobs: FAQ
How long does it take to become a paramedic?
Earning a degree, completing required training, and taking the certification exam requires about 2-3 years.
How long does it take to become an EMT?
Most candidates need six months to two years to complete the training courses and pass the NREMT exam.
What other jobs can I do as a paramedic/EMT?
EMTs and paramedics can explore careers as police officers and firefighters. Hospitals also hire EMTs as emergency-room technicians.
Do paramedics get paid well?
According to the BLS, EMTs and paramedics earn a median annual salary of $36,650. Wages range from $24,650 to $62,150 and depend on the industry you work in and your location. Whether or not the pay is satisfactory for you will be a personal decision after doing a cost/benefit analysis and will depend on the cost of living in your location.
Is being an EMT dangerous?
EMTs and paramedics have one of the highest rates of on-the-job injury and illness of all occupations, according to the BLS. Following proper safety procedures can reduce this risk.
What's the fastest way to become an EMT?
To become an EMT quickly, candidates should complete CPR certification, take a six-month training course, and sit for the NREMT exam immediately after completing training.
What are the EMT basic requirements?
While requirements to become an EMT vary by state, you typically must:
- Complete a postsecondary educational program for EMT training
- Get CPR certification
- Pass a cognitive and psychomotor exam
- Get licensed (in some states)
Components of a Successful Career as a Paramedic/EMT
This is a fast-paced career that demands workers have strong critical thinking skills to make snap decisions about how to treat patients. EMTs and paramedics must be excellent communicators: good listening helps them understand what each patient needs, while strong verbal skills allow them to communicate effectively with patients and other healthcare professionals.
Like other medical providers, paramedics and EMTs must show compassion when working with people in physical and emotional distress. Physical strength, stamina, and coordination are imperative for moving patients quickly and treating them with precision.
In addition to receiving a state license and NREMT certification, EMTs and paramedics who want to drive emergency vehicles must take a separate training course. Though this is not an exhaustive list, the following certifications are available to EMTs and paramedics:
- Certified Healthcare Emergency Professional: International Board for Certification of Safety Managers
- EMT Basic: National Registry of EMTs
- EMT Intermediate: National Registry of EMTs
- EMT Paramedic: National Registry of EMTs
- First Responder: National Registry of EMTs
- Certified Medical Interpreter: The National Board of Certification for Medical Interpreters
- Critical Care Paramedics: Board for Critical Care Transport Paramedic Certification
- Flight Paramedic Certification: Board for Critical Care Transport Paramedic Certification
- Certified Hyperbaric Technologist: National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology
Tools and Technology for Paramedics
Paramedics and EMTs need several tools and technologies in order to treat patients. Some of the technologies they use include medical software like MedDataSolutions Regist*r, and information retrieval software—such as TechOnSoftware HazMatCE Pro, Epocrates software, and HyperTox.
In addition, some of the tools of this trade include airway suction units, portable oxygen equipment, cardboard splints, oxygen masks, laryngoscopes, and intravenous IV pressure infusers.
Similar Emergency Service Jobs
EMTs and paramedics can often work in other first-response environments, such as police and fire departments. EMTs and paramedics can also pursue healthcare positions, including roles as nurses, dental hygienists, and emergency management directors.
Each position requires additional training and education. Salary potential and job outlook vary by occupation.
|Career||Outlook||Salary||Education and Training|
|Firefighter||5.3%||$52,500||High school diploma or the equivalent, Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basic certification|
|Police Officer||5%||$67,920||High school education or GED, police academy training|
|Corrections Officer||-7.2%||$47,400||High school diploma or equivalent, American Correctional Association training|
|Registered Nurse||12.1%||$75,330||Bachelor's degree, supervised clinical training|
|Physician Assistant||31.1%||$115,390||Master's degree, supervised clinical training|
|Dental Hygienist||10.8%||$77,090||Associate degree, clinical training|
|Nurse Anesthetist||17.1%||$117,670||Master's degree, clinical training|
|Occupational Therapist||17.9%||$86,280||Master's degree, clinical training|
|Emergency Management Directors||5.1%||$76,250||Bachelor's degree and work experience in emergency response|
What Do Similar Careers Pay?
EMTs and paramedics dedicate their careers to helping individuals in distress. The table below highlights careers that involve working to keep communities safe.
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians
The NREMT is the national certifying organization for EMTs and paramedics. This nonprofit organization oversees and administers the EMT and paramedic exams.
National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians
NAEMT is a professional organization for emergency medical responders, including EMTs and paramedics. This organization provides continuing education, advocacy, and online resources.
National Association of State EMS Officials
This organization works with states to improve emergency medical systems. NASEMSO collaborates with EMTs and paramedics to create safer, more effective working environments.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Emergency Medical Services
The Office of EMS partners with the Department of Transportation and other federal agencies to strengthen emergency response systems across the nation.
Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs
CAAHEP is an accrediting agency for health science professions and programs. This organization sets and monitors training standards for EMT and paramedic courses.
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