Most people take the ability to read and write for granted, but for some, literacy is elusive, putting them at a profound disadvantage in a society heavily dependent on the written word. Keep reading for an in-depth look at professional avenues to improve literacy, from volunteer work with grassroots organizations to full-time careers. The issue of literacy is also covered at length, including some of its root causes and the societal consequences of having so many people who struggle with even basic tasks such as reading a menu or paying bills.
Any number of factors can affect literacy, from learning disorders to a fundamental lack of education or access to resources. Following are some of the main types of people who need literacy assistance, as well as a look at the underlying causes.
Low literacy can be a vicious cycle. About one in four U.S. children grow up without learning how to read, and these youths are four times more likely to drop out of high school, making them even less likely to receive help with literacy issues.
About 85 percent of people with learning disabilities have problems reading and writing. Low literacy is often associated with conditions like dyslexia, which affects the ability to read, and dysgraphia, which causes difficulty with writing.
Immigrants often need literacy help, particularly those who come from economically disadvantaged countries. Likewise, American-born children of immigrants are also likely to need help learning how to read and write in English.
Low literacy is a widespread problem among people in the criminal justice system – with 70 percent of inmates unable to read. Many inmates first became incarcerated as juveniles, reducing their chances of gaining basic reading skills.
Schools in underserved communities often lack sufficient resources to ensure students become literate. These students may also come from families with low literacy rates, often meaning they have less exposure to books or other reading materials.
Those who want to help others read and write English can pursue a variety of career and volunteer opportunities. The table below describes some of the primary avenues for making a difference.
|Profession||Who They Help||Description|
|Adult Literacy Teachers||
Adult literacy teachers provide instruction on basic English reading, writing and speaking skills. Working in schools and social assistance organizations, they emphasize workplace language skills to help students find employment.
English instructors teach reading, writing and speaking skills that are appropriate for a specific grade level. In addition to teaching the general population, they may provide specialized instruction to students who have reading problems, which can include reviewing their skills and working with them in small groups where the focus is on phonetics and vocabulary.
ESL teachers provide instruction to students whose native language is not English. Lessons are designed to help students navigate daily life, find employment, and pass the citizenship test.
Instructional coordinators help develop school standards that ensure students receive a quality education. They also train teachers on techniques that can be used in the classroom when working with students who need literacy help.
School counselors help parents and teachers identify literacy issues and create a plan to improve students’ reading and writing skills. In some cases, school counselors may assist teachers in the classroom.
Librarians may create reading programs targeted toward low literacy individuals, buy the books needed to help them, and ensure that students can access programs and services.
|Special Education Teachers||
Special education teachers adapt their lessons to effectively teach those with learning disabilities. They work with parents, counselors and administrators to assess students’ literacy needs and implement lessons that will most benefit them.
Superintendents and principals do not work directly with students, but focus on making policies that facilitate receiving help. They develop programs, work with teachers to create classroom curricula, and purchase supplies that can be instrumental in increasing literacy.
Tutors work with children and adults who have low literacy by creating personalized lessons geared toward their needs. They select appropriate reading materials and monitor students’ progress.
|Volunteer Organization||Who They Help||Description|
Volunteers read to children in their communities, organize fundraisers, and donate books.
|International Literacy Association||
The International Literacy Association has councils on the state, regional and local levels where people can volunteer. In addition, the organization has affiliates in 75 countries.
Local libraries often have community-based literacy programs staffed by volunteers.
|Raising A Reader||
Volunteers can participate in reading events, pack books to be distributed to children and educators, or provide office support.
|Reach Out and Read||
Those who volunteer for this organization can read to others, donate books, or help create literacy-rich waiting rooms.
Volunteers are welcome at events UNESCO organizes around the world on International Literacy Day.
English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, also known as English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, assist those who are not native English speakers by using a practical curriculum that emphasizes everyday situations students will encounter—from filling out a job application to reading food labels at the grocery store. This approach serves both to increase literacy and to help students adjust to American life.
Because ESL teachers usually don’t share a common language with their students, they must find creative ways to bridge the gap. Their training usually involves the following steps:
The minimum requirement for becoming an ESL teacher is to earn a bachelor’s degree in a discipline such as English, education or a foreign language.
Depending on the state they live in, ESL teachers may be required to receive specialized training in linguistic theory or learning a second language. Some schools have certification programs for ESL teachers that cover topics such as teaching grammar and conversational skills, assessing student language abilities, and tailoring curriculum to meet specific needs.
Teachers must get a state license to work, although the criteria for credentialing may vary from state to state.
In some states, teachers are required to gain specific ESL experience to receive a license. Pre-licensure opportunities may be found at adult centers, community colleges, international education programs, and public and private schools.
Master’s degrees are not required for all jobs, but some employers prefer to hire ESL teachers with advanced knowledge and training.
7% (5,500 New Jobs)
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
* Data represents all Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors
Teaching English abroad can not only be a culturally enriching experience, but one that serves a practical function for ESL teachers who need hands-on experience to qualify for a license or simply hone their skills. Those in the education field are not the only ones taking advantage of these opportunities, however. According to Go Overseas, of the 250,000 English speakers who teach the language abroad each year, the majority of them are not trained teachers—just people who want to make a meaningful contribution to those who need literacy help.
The qualifications to teach English overseas vary by country. Although some require that teachers have a bachelor’s degree or a Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) certification, others hire instructors with no formal training at all. Similarly, some require English teachers to be familiar with the host country’s native language, so it may be necessary to take foreign language courses in preparation.I can’t decide where I want to teach. How do settle on a host country?
In addition to local language and educational requirements (as well as your travel interests), salary and cost of living are two important factors to look at when choosing a host country. Some locations in Asia, for example, pay among the highest salaries for this work. In contrast, much lower wages are paid in countries such as Costa Rica. In some cases, a country may have a government-funded program that allows English teachers to receive free housing and airfare reimbursement. The benefits can vary as widely as the education requirements, so it's important for prospective English teachers to do their homework on these issues before making any decisions.
When people think about crime prevention, they may think about deterrents such as increased police patrols or stronger punitive sentences for offenders. Such approaches, however, only succeed at preventing criminal acts. Just as important (if not more so) is preventing individuals from becoming criminals in the first place. Poverty and illiteracy are two underlying causes of criminal behavior. Here we examine the inseparable relationship between these three elements.Poverty often leads to desperation, leading some to commit crimes as a way to escape an environment devoid of opportunity.
It's no secret that poverty often leads to desperation, leading some to commit crimes as a way to escape an environment devoid of opportunity. Indeed, statistics show clear and disturbing links between poverty and criminal activity. Statistics also show strong correlations between low literacy and poverty. Poorer people have less access to resources that help develop literacy skills, and their weak reading and writing ability then excludes them from employment opportunities that could improve their economic situations.
Unfortunately, schools in underserved communities often struggle financially, trying to educate students with insufficient resources. Parents in these communities often have low literacy skills themselves, and are unable to supplement or reinforce in-school training. As a result, many children struggle to attain even basic proficiency in language, cutting them off from opportunities for further education or good employment. In addition, it can make them feel embarrassed and unworthy, discouraging them from engaging in positive social activities such as church, sports, and school clubs. This isolation can increase the risks of committing crimes as well as becoming the victims of crime.The social isolation of being illiterate can increase the risk of committing crimes and becoming the victim of one.
In order to create social and economic opportunities, literacy advocates stress the importance of programs that teach reading to poor populations and intervene with at-risk youth before they engage in criminal activity. For those who do end up in the criminal justice system, reading programs in prison can be a key tool to reduce recidivism rates, since basic literacy skills will give released inmates more opportunities for legitimate employment upon reentering society. The triangle of poverty, crime and low literacy, then, is not inescapable. Turning the page on crime prevention may well begin with turning the pages of a book.
The inability to read fluently can have devastating effects on several areas of life. The statistics below illustrate how widespread this problem is, and how it contributes to problems such as crime and unemployment.
Approximately 14 percent of the U.S. population cannot read at a basic level
The U.S. scores below the international average in literacy, ranking 16 out of 24 countries
2/3 of students who can’t read past the fourth-grade level end up becoming incarcerated or going on welfare
People with low literacy are 2X as likely to be unemployed
781 million adults around the world cannot read or write.
Given how much of our educational system and work training is based on reading written information, [those who never learned to read and write beyond a certain level] have been denied access. Once in junior high and high school, functionally illiterate children will be unable to progress educationally and most likely will receive no higher education. This in turn limits the career and economic trajectory of the individual, and of course hurts the nation overall as the United States relies more and more heavily on a highly-educated workforce with a strong knowledge of technology.
The negative impact is multifaceted. Unemployment, low socioeconomic status, and low self-esteem are the most obvious adverse effects of low literacy. Losing the ability to be a lifelong learner, as well as not being able to provide educational assistance to one’s children, are also very tragic consequences.
As a regional consultant [for Wisconsin Literacy] I work with a portion of our member programs that provide reading, writing and speaking training to both native English speakers, as well as English Language Learners. I consult in training, administration, materials and lesson planning, etc. … Areas covered can include reading, writing, speaking, health literacy, financial literacy, numeracy and more. All fall under the umbrella of literacy education.
At Glenwood Academy, a … residential school for good kids from challenging circumstances, our students often come … from poor-performing schools with crowded classrooms and limited services. While their families value education, early literacy is often not a priority in the home.
When these students enter our school … we determine their academic levels and plan individualized instruction accordingly. Students must be presented with work at their instructional level to begin building a solid foundation of skills. … Setting students up to succeed means meeting them where they are. When students are able to learn and experience success, they buy into the learning process! They become confident learners who feel positive about school.
Certainly careers in education, with a focus on adult education or literacy, are a great starting place. Special education that focuses on learning disabilities is also extremely valuable in the literacy world. Literacy education can focus on children and families (family literacy) on adults (adult basic education) or on those wishing to learn English (English language learners).
Perhaps even more important than the career is the choice of education. In order to help people … learn to read and write, it is vital to have a strong knowledge of the structure of language and how languages are learned. Therefore, the most useful degree is in linguistics. Having acquired this knowledge, several different careers become possible, such as becoming a pre-K or school teacher, ESL teacher, community worker, etc.
In order to help people with low literacy improve their reading skills, companies are leveraging technology to create tools that are both educational and engaging. Below are some examples of these tools.
This organization provides mentoring services and book clubs for children in low-income areas.
ILA creates literacy programs around the world, publishes books on literacy education, and provides resources like lesson plans.
Provides training to college students to teach reading to preschool children in low-income neighborhoods.
Works to empower those with learning disabilities, as well as the educators who work with them.
Comprised of scholars who conduct evidence-based research on literacy.
Organizes reading programs geared toward low-income families.
The NCLD advocates on behalf of students with learning disabilities, their parents, and educators.
Promotes literacy by providing support to educators.
The National Writing Project supports educators who teach writing by providing educational resources, professional development, and access to research designed to improve pedagogical techniques.
Provides free paperback books and reading lists to children.